Fundamentals of Laser Technology and Photonics

Scope of questions for State exams of Bachelor's degree program

Branch: Physics of Plasma and Thermonuclear Fusion

Subject: Fundamentals of Laser Technology and Photonics

Subjects regarding the questions:

  • 12LTB1 Laser Technology 1
  • 12LTB2 Laser Technology 2
  • 12ZAOP Fundamentals of Optics
  • 12ZELD Fundamentals of Electrodynamics
  • 12ZFS Fundamentals of Photonic Structures
1. Principles of lasers -fundamentals of radiation interaction with matter, Einstein coefficients, stimulated emission, inversion of population levels, radiation amplification, threshold laser condition, rate equations
2. Types of lasers according to active medium and their application
3. Open resonators, laser radiation spectrum, longitudinal and transverse modes, Gaussian beam, stability diagram, stable and unstable resonators
4. Laser oscillator, operation modes –free-running mode, Q-switching, mode-locking
5. Laser amplifier, gain saturation, amplified signal distortion, types and systems of laser amplifiers
6. Light radiation description, characteristics of the electromagnetic field and light wave (amplitude, phase, energy, light intensity, light dispersion, color, and polarization). Material effect –linear and nonlinear behavior of light, isotropic and anisotropic media. Plane waves -complex refractive index, wave vector, characteristic admittance, dispersion of light 
7. Light at the boundary between two homogeneous media -Snell's laws, Fresnel's relations, total internal reflection, Brewster's angle, and their applications. Light beams –Gaussian beam, propagation and divergence
8. Optical interference and diffraction effects, statistical optical phenomena, conditions for interference, scalar theory of diffraction, Fresnel and Fraunhofer approximation, holographic method of wavefront recording and reconstruction
9. Fundamentals of geometric optics, imaging equation, paraxial optical system, optical power, basic optical instruments
10. Optical waveguides, metal and dielectric waveguides, types of dielectric waveguides and their properties, classification, optical fibers, realization technology, dispersion effects, applications